Have you just walked downstairs or into the room and your aquarium water is cloudy? Have you begun to panic a little? Well, don’t. Diagnosis is the key to a cloudy aquarium and we need to know the cause before we can treat.
Algae blooms, bacterial infections, powerhead-induced sandstorms, pump-induced micro-bubbles, or even a mass coral spawning event are the most common culprits of cloudy aquarium water. Microbubbles and green or milky water will indicate whether the problem is mechanical or chemical.
Many of the causes of a cloudy aquarium are pretty easy to diagnose so lets go and see what caused your heart to skip a beat!
How Do You Diagnose The Type Of Reef Tank Water Cloudiness?
You want to begin with eliminating the obvious.
Eliminate if its bubbles or sand:
- Has your powerhead fallen off its mount, has the suction cup let go and it’s now blowing all the sand around the tank?
- Did you purchase a Sand Sifting Goby the day before?
- Has the powerhead been knocked and is sucking in air from the surface and creating mass bubble chaos?
- Has your protein skimmer developed a problem and firing bubbles into the water?
- Has your water level dropped and the return nozzle is now pulling in air from the surface and creating bubbles?
Did you have any Anemones?
Did you own an Anemone that has unstuck itself and been dragged into a powerhead – Large emergency water change & run Activated Carbon if this is the case!
What color is the water? Green or Milky?
Green = Algae-based problem.
Milky = Bacteria, Coral Spawning or Precipitation based problem.
More on these causes later…
Did Your Saltwater Tank Go Cloudy During Its Cycle?
During your aquariums cycle, you are allowing time for Beneficial Bacteria to build in your system to deal with the Ammonia, Nitrites, and Nitrates that your soon-to-be-added livestock will be releasing. During this time your bacteria has not found the equilibrium your aquarium needs to allow mother nature to do her thing.
When there are not enough bacteria to manage the waste you could see the water have a cloudiness or haze to it as the Bacteria blooms. These can last from several days to several weeks depending on your situation. As time passes, the water will clear as the Beneficial Bacteria multiply and deal with the issues causing the cloudy water. As you have probably heard many times already, Be Patient!
Did Your Aquarium Water Go Cloudy After A Water Change?
Mixing saltwater can sometimes give you headaches! It is rare but sometimes you can have a new batch of salt that takes longer to fully dissolve into the water. I usually begin mixing my new saltwater batch a day or two before I do my water change to ensure thorough mixing, but you may not have that situation available.
If your water is cloudy after a water change these are probably the most common reasons:
- Salt not fully dissolved – Patience, it will dissolve with time
- If you have disturbed the sandbed during vacuuming or adding the water this will have released dust and detritus into the water column. Allow your filter floss or filter socks to remove the suspended particles
- Microbubbles are always present for a few hours after a water change. The mixing of the water, adding the water and general messing around with the water all adds microbubbles. Again, patience will see them clear
Did Your Saltwater Aquarium Go Cloudy Overnight?
Do you have a tank full of thriving corals and you woke up to a cloudy tank? It’s not uncommon for corals to spawn during the night once they are happy and thriving, especially if you have multiple corals of the same species.
Depending on how many spawned will depend on how cloudy your water became. Your corals may have been spawning for years but only on a small scale and your filtration removed any trace of it before your lights came back on the next day.
This year may be different! You could have had a mass spawning event and it’s taking a while for your filtration to clear it. Run through the items in this article to ensure it is not something else causing the cloudiness and if not, congratulations! You could have a thriving Reef! To me, having an animal reproducing in your aquarium shows it is happy and all its needs are met!
On the other hand, if you have no corals in your aquarium, or you only have a few and they are new, then spawning is not likely to be the cause.
How Do You Get Rid Of Milky Water In A Fish Tank?
Your aquarium is full of different types of bacteria all doing a specific job, you have Nitrosomonas Bacteria that convert Ammonia into Nitrite, you have Nitrobacter Bacteria that converts Nitrite to Nitrate and you have Bacteria that feed off organic waste such as uneaten food, poop, and detritus, just to name a few.
The bacteria that are most likely to cause a milky cloudiness to your aquarium are called Heterotrophic Bacteria and these are the ones feeding on the decaying waste. They can have explosions of multiplication when a food source is in abundance and these will then become visible as a ‘Milky’ color due to the amount floating in the water column.
What this shows you is that you need to do more to remove the decaying matter in your tank. More frequent water changes, vacuuming the sand bed, turkey basting your rocks, cleaning your floss/socks more often, increasing your clean-up-crew or reducing your bio-load by having less fish or feeding less. The cloudiness will soon clear with a bit of maintenance and a water change!
Bacterial blooms are nothing to get panicked over, its just mother nature taking advantage of the abundance of available food. As time goes on, the different bacteria will multiply to help deal with the bio-load and hopefully, your increased maintenance will prevent this from happening in the future.
If you find this is happening regularly and your maintenance is good then you could look at adding a UV Sterilizer to your system. They come in all sizes to accommodate every tank size and the sterilizer will kill any bacteria that flows through it. This could help control the cloudiness if you have tried everything else.
If I was going to install a UV system on my aquarium I would definitely look at the great range of sterilizers from Aqua Ultraviolet stocked by Marine Depot. They come in a vast range of sizes to accommodate any system and are bacteria sterilizing machines!
I know of a few owners who love them and they really helped clear their water.
For even more information on UV Sterilizers you can read my article –
‘Aquarium UV Sterilizers – What Do They Really Do?‘
How Do You Get Rid Of Green Water In Your Fish Tank?
When your aquarium water has gone green there is one culprit, Algae! The greeness occurs because your water has created the perfect environment for microscopic algae to have a growth explosion. There are so many individual microscopic algae organisms that you can now visibly see them, hence the green water.
If they multiply enough there can be cases where you cannot even see the fish! I have seen this many times on freshwater aquariums where the maintenance has been poor at the best of times!
The excess algae bloom is usually fuelled by one or more of the following situations:-
Too Much Light
Algae is a plant and it uses photosynthesis to convert light to food. If your aquarium has too long a lighting period or has direct sunlight you will get more algae growth. I have one small corner that receives direct sunlight first thing in the morning and that corner is always greener than the rest of the glass.
If this may be a cause, shade the tank somehow from the direct sun or reduce the lighting period on your lights. I like my lights on more in the evening when my family and I are around so my lights ramp up from noon and then ramp down beginning at 10pm. I have good algae growth on my glass but I Mag-Scrape (Magnetic Glass Cleaner) my glass every 2 days.
Do you have a lot of fish? Do you overfeed? We all do at some point! Excess nutrients are just fuel for algae. Algae love Nitrate, Phosphate, and light to thrive and a good way to provide the first two is a heavy bio-load. Having a lot of fish and feeding them regularly is OK providing you clean up!
Making sure to vacuum your sand bed and turkey baste your rock before a water change are great ways to help remove detritus. Same goes for the sump, turkey baste any sitting waste and get it into the water column. The more waste you have sitting, the more it will break down into Nitrate and release Phosphate into your water, fuelling the algae.
High Levels of Phosphate
As just mentioned, algae loves Phosphate. The higher the level you have, the more food you are providing for the algae. Get the detritus removed to prevent it from releasing the Phosphate into the water.
High Levels of Nitrate
Just as Phosphate, the higher level you have, the more food you are providing for the algae. Regular water changes are a great way to help keep Nitrate low.
Tips To Help Make Your Saltwater Aquarium Crystal Clear
- Regular water changes
- Don’t overfeed
- Install a Refugium ==> See my article HERE on Refugium’s <==
- Vacuum sand bed and turkey baste rocks & sump weekly
- Mag-Scrape your glass often
- Keep filter floss and socks clean
- Keep your Protein Skimmer clean and working efficiently
- Have good water surface agitation for gas exchange and keep oxygen level high
- Keep powerheads from disturbing the sandbed
- Have a Bubble Trap in the sump after your Protein Skimmer
- Use good quality Activated Carbon. Change it regularly
- A UV sterilizer is another solution since UV light will kill microorganisms in the water such as bacteria, algae, and viruses. In theory, good guy micro-organisms in the rock and sand are not killed since they must be free-floating and pass through the UV sterilizer.
Just like many of the other methods of controlling a parameter or issue within your saltwater aquarium, it requires a multi-angled approach. By having a good, regular maintenance schedule and incorporating some of the tips listed in the article your phase of cloudy water will be short-lived and hopefully not to be seen again (Unless its coral spawning which is a good thing!).
Many of the problems I see with beginners are mainly caused by either their first time experiencing the issue or the lack of knowledge on what caused the issue.